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    The International Society for Aerosols in Medicine

    Otmar Schmid

    Otmar Schmid

    Dr. Otmar Schmid

    Helmholtz Zentrum München

    Dr. Schmid1,2 is head of the Pulmonary Aerosol Delivery Group at the Comprehensive Pneumology Center & Helmholtz Zentrum München (Munich, Germany) and Adjunct Assistant Professor at the Missouri University of Science and Technology (Rolla, MO, USA). His research interests include

    • • dose-controlled aerosolized drug delivery to in vitro and in vivo models of the lung
    • • development of advanced bioreactors of the lung
    • • preclinical whole lung imaging for deposition, biokinetics and cellular targeting of nanocarriers
    • • in vitro/in vivo/clinical correlation

    He is co-inventor of the patented ALICE-CLOUD technology for dose-controlled aerosol exposure of in vitro air-liquid cell models, which is commercially available as VITROCELL CLOUD system (VITROCELL Systems, Germany). He has served on the ISAM board, as chair of ISAM Networking Groups and as co-organizer of ISAM symposiums.

    1Comprehensive Pneumology Center Munich, Max-Lebsche-Platz 31, 81377 Munich, Germany
    2Institute of Lung Biology and Disease, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Ingolstädter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg/Munich, Germany

    Aerosol delivery to air-liquid cell models


    There is intense interest in studying the effect of aerosols on human health both from the toxicological (e.g. urban dust) and therapeutic perspective (drugs). In vitro models culturing epithelial cells under air-liquid interface (ALI) conditions are increasingly recognized as biomimetic model of the pulmonary epithelial tissue barrier. Consequently, aerosol exposure systems have been developed for delivery of aerosolized substances to these in vitro models mimicking the physiologic conditions in the lung.
    In this talk an overview of the various types of aerosol-cell exposure systems is provided and their suitability for toxicological and therapeutic aerosol applications is discussed. One of the most relevant systems for aerosols in medicine is the VITROCELL® CLOUD system, which combines ease-of-use with high aerosol delivery efficiency (ca. 10%) and dose rates comparable to clinical settings. The significance of cell or tissue delivered dose for in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) is highlighted and (real-time) methods of aerosol dosimetry are presented. Finally, a non-microfluidic system for dose-controlled aerosol delivery to air-liquid cell models under cyclic cell-stretch conditions is presented for mimicking the mechanical stress-strain profile experienced by alveolar tissue during breathing activity.